New Strategy Center and Centro Studi Internazionali (CeSI) from Italy conducted a policy-paper on the topic of the militarization of the Black Sea region and the Eastern Mediterranean. This study analyzes the evolution of the relevance of the Black Sea region in the Russian military strategy, its role as a platform for the political and military ambitions to the Eastern Mediterranean, as well as the measures taken by the North-Atlantic Alliance to ensure the security of the member states in the region and the NATO military presence in the area. We mention that this is the first common study on the topic made by a Romanian and an Italian think-tank.